It has been reported that the smaller size of zinc oxide nanoparticles exhibits greater antibacterial activity than microscale particles [83]. Since zinc oxide nanoparticles up to a concentration of 100 μg/ml are harmless to normal body cells, they can be used as an alternative to antibiotics. [90] have highlighted the difference of cytotoxicity between particle size and different sensitivity of cells toward the particles of the same composition. Sci Rep 6:35243, Sinha R, Karan R, Sinha A, Khare SK (2011) Interaction and nanotoxic effect of ZnO and Ag nanoparticles on mesophilic and halophilic bacterial cells. J Nanobiotechnol 12:28, Husen A, Siddiqi KS (2014) Carbon and fullerene nanomaterials in plant system. The free radicals are so reactive that they cannot stay in free and, therefore, they can either form a molecule or react with a counter ion to give another molecule. Eur J Pharmacol 738:31–39, Frederickson CJ, Koh JY, Bush AI (2005) The neurobiology of zinc in health and disease. statement and 3b). Although contradictory results have been reported, many workers showed positive effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on bacterial cells. In general, it has been demonstrated from SEM and TEM images of bacterial cells treated with zinc oxide nanoparticles that they get ruptured and, in many cases, the nanoparticles damage the cell wall forcing their entry into it [114, 115]. Coating of zinc oxide nanoparticles with mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane or SiO2 reduces their cytotoxicity [103]. Nano Res Lett 9:229, Article  Environ Sci Technol 40:4346–4352, Pati R, Mehta RK, Mohanty S, Padhi A, Sengupta M, Vaseeharan B, Goswami C, Sonawane A (2014) Topical application of zinc oxide nanoparticles reduces bacterial skin infection in mice and exhibits antibacterial activity by inducing oxidative stress response and cell membrane disintegration in macrophages. J Mater Sci Mater Med 15:847–851, Premanathan M, Karthikeyan K, Jeyasubramanian K, Manivannan G (2011) Selective toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles toward Gram-positive bacteria and cancer cells by apoptosis through lipid peroxidation. Wahab et al. However, it is true that zinc oxide can absorb sun light and help in cleaving water molecules which may combine in many ways to give oxygen. Ghorbanpourn M, Manika K, Varma A) Springer International Publishing AG, Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland, pp.455–479, Chaudhry Q, Scotter M, Blackburn J, Ross B, Boxall A, Castle L, Aitken R, Watkins R (2008) Applications and implications of nanotechnologies for the food sector. a TEM images of untreated normal Salmonella typhimurium cells. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanopowders are available as powders and dispersions. [1], ZnO nanoparticles are believed to be one of the three most produced nanomaterials, along with titanium dioxide nanoparticles and silicon dioxide nanoparticles. The potential cytotoxic effects of different nanoparticles have been attributed to their shape. Doping of zinc oxide nanoparticles with iron reduces the toxicity. J Phys Condens Mat 16:R829–R858, Moezzi A, Cortie M, McDonagh A (2011) Aqueous pathways for the formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Although conflicting reports have been received about nanoparticles due to their inadvertent use and disposal, some metal oxide nanoparticles are useful to men, animals, and plants. Environ Sci Technol 42:4583–4588, Lok CN, Ho CM, Chen R, He QY, Yu WY, Sun H, Tam PK, Chiu JF, Che CM (2005) Proteomic analysis of the mode of antibacterial action of silver nanoparticles. It is expected that if the incubation time is increased, the growth inhibition would also increase without much alteration in the mechanism of action [63]. Nanoparticles have also been used as a carrier to deliver therapeutic agents to treat bacterial infection [1, 9]. [5] They are also being investigated to kill harmful microorganisms in packaging,[6] and in UV-protective materials such as textiles. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using a simple precipitation method with zinc … Metal oxide nanoparticles damage the cell membrane and DNA [63, 109,110,111] of microbes via diffusion. Nanoscale Res Lett 13, 141 (2018). Cookies policy. Zinc oxide nanoparticles exhibit antibacterial, anti-corrosive, antifungal and UV filtering properties. FEMS Microbiol Lett 279:71–76, Wahab R, Mishra A, Yun SI, Kim YS, Shin HS (2010) Antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles prepared via non-hydrolytic solution route. Antibacterial influence of metal oxide nanoparticles includes its diffusion into the bacterial cell, followed by release of metal ions and DNA damage leading to cell death [63, 109,110,111]. However, SEM image of the untreated cells clearly showed spiral shapes (Fig. Contact between nanoparticles and the cell wall is sufficient to cause toxicity. Nanotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles against halophilic gram-negative Marinobacter species and gram-positive halophilic bacterial species showed 80% growth inhibition. This proposal, however, requires experimental proof because the mere presence of zinc oxide nanoparticle is not enough to produce H2O2. It exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli at a very low zinc oxide concentration (1.33 mM). TEM images of Escherichia coli (a), zinc oxide nanoparticles with E. coli at different stages (b and inset), Klebsiella pneumoniae (c), and zinc oxide nanoparticles with K. pneumoniae (d and inset) [120]. The transparent particles, which effectively filter out ultraviolet-a (UVA) and ultraviolet-b (UVB) light, are then coated with inert silicon or aluminum oxide layers and tend to clump together into groups that are 200 to 500 nanometers in diameter. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Many bacterial infections are transmitted by contact with door knobs, key boards, water taps, bath tubs, and telephones; therefore, it is essential to develop and coat such surfaces with inexpensive advanced antibacterial substances so that their growth is inhibited. J Mater Sci. J Appl Phys 98:041301, Klingshirn C ZnO: from basics towards applications. The exact physical and chemical properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles depend on the different ways they are synthesized. Google Scholar, Husen A, Siddiqi KS (2014) Plants and microbes assisted selenium nanoparticles: characterization and application. Emerging Technol.—Nanoelectron pp. J Nutr 130:1421S–1423S, Hiller JM, Perlmutter A (1971) Effect of zinc on viral-host interactions in a rainbow trout cell line, RTG-2. [2][3][4] The most common use of ZnO nanoparticles is in sunscreen. Biochemistry 36:173–180, Adams LK, Lyon DY, Alvarez PJJ (2006) Comparative eco-toxicity of nanoscale TiO2, SiO2, and ZnO water suspensions. https://doi.org/10.1186/s11671-018-2532-3, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s11671-018-2532-3. Nanomedicine 7:184–192, Lovric J, Cho SJ, Winnik FM, Maysinger D (2005) Unmodified cadmium telluride quantum dots induce reactive oxygen species formation leading to multiple organelle damage and cell death. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles had been in current studies due to its large bandwidth and high exciton binding energy and it has prospective applications such as electronic, optical, mechanical, magnetic and chemical properties that are significantly different from those of bulk counterpart. It has been suggested that Zn2+ ions are attached to the biomolecules in the bacterial cell via electrostatic forces. [5], "Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles", "Inventory of Engineered Nanoparticle-Containing Consumer Products Available in the Singapore Retail Market and Likelihood of Release into the Aquatic Environment", "Industrial production quantities and uses of ten engineered nanomaterials in Europe and the world", "Engineered Nanoparticles in Consumer Products: Understanding a New Ingredient", "Nanotechnology in the real world: Redeveloping the nanomaterial consumer products inventory", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Zinc_oxide_nanoparticle&oldid=993976941, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 13 December 2020, at 14:36. Also, they have suggested that zinc oxide nanoparticles dissolve completely generating Zn2+ ions which are bonded to biomolecules of the target cells. Mechanism of oxygen production in the presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles still needs experimental evidence. The characteristic properties of nanoparticles and their impact on biological functions are entirely different from those of the bulk material [80]. Nanotoxicology 7:402–416, Gilbert B, Fakra SC, Xia T, Pokhrel S, Mädler L, Nel AE (2012) The fate of ZnO nanoparticles administered to human bronchial epithelial cells. It has been noticed that with increasing concentration of nanoparticles, growth inhibition of microbes increases. Methods. The results showed that C. jejuni was extremely sensitive to treatment with ZnO nanoparticles. The polymer-coated spherical zinc oxide nanoparticles showed maximum bacterial cell destruction compared to bulk zinc oxide powder [99]. Dalton Trans 40:4871–4878, Xie J, Li P, Li Y, Wang Y, Wei Y (2009) Morphology control of ZnO particles via aqueous solution route at low temperature. It has also been indicated from the viable cell determination during the exposure of bacterial cells to zinc oxide nanoparticles that the number of cells recovered decreased significantly with decrease in size of zinc oxide nanoparticles. c, d Micrograph of deteriorated and ruptured S. typhimurium cells treated with zinc oxide nanoparticles [115]. Thus, they prevent HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection in vitro. Exploiting these properties enables different applications. [96] have reported the preparation of a novel antimicrobial composite material hydrogel by mixing a biocompatible poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) with zinc oxide nanoparticles. Their toxicity to microbes has been ascribed to the formation of Zn2+ ions from zinc oxide when it is suspended in water and also to some extent to a slight change in pH. Nano Res Lett 11:400, Siddiqi KS, Husen A (2016) Green synthesis, characterization and uses of palladium/platinum nanoparticles. The zinc oxide nanoparticles-seller in the market is trying to provide the best zinc oxide nanoparticles and provide it to its customers at the best price to gain the customer’s satisfaction in the market besides gaining satisfaction. For these reasons, ZnO-NPs have been applied to food packaging. A study of the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Azamal Husen. Food Bioprocess Technol 5:1447–1464, Hu X, Cook S, Wang P, Hwang HM (2009) In vitro evaluation of cytotoxicity of engineered metal oxide nanoparticles. Zinc oxide nanoparticles can therefore be used in preventing the biological system from infections. Zinc oxide nanoparticles have high impact on the cell surface and may be activated when exposed to UV-Vis light to generate ROS (H2O2) which permeate into the cell body while the negatively charged ROS species such as O22− remain on the cell surface and affect their integrity [116, 117]. Nair et al. Tetrapods exhibited hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with alternating Zn2+ and O2− ions with three-dimensional geometry. Toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles is concentration and solubility dependent. It was demonstrated that zinc oxide nanoparticles below 5 mM concentration are ineffective against bacteria. For instance, Au55 nanoparticles of 1.4-nm size have been demonstrated to interact with the major grooves of DNA which accounts for its toxicity [84]. It was further confirmed by measuring glutathione depletion, malondialdehyde production, superoxide dismutase inhibition, and ROS generation. Na Rev Neurosci 6:449–462, Halioua B, Ziskind B (2005) Medicine in the days of the pharaohs. Their physical, chemical and biological behaviour may differ in some respects, mainly because of their small size and the large surface area this yields for the same amount of material. Synth React Inorg Met Org Chem Nano-Met Chem 36:155–159, Kakiuchi K, Hosono E, Kimura T, Imai H, Fujihara S (2006) Fabrication of mesoporous ZnO nanosheets from precursor templates grown in aqueous solutions. Cellular uptake of nanoparticles is not mandatory for cytotoxicity to occur. 5c, d). In the recent past, antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticle has been investigated against four known gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. a Untreated cells from the same growth conditions were used as a control. It was found that 90% bacterial colonies perished after exposing them to a dose of 500–1000 μg/ml of zinc oxide nanoparticles only for 6 h. Even the drug-resistant S. aureus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Mycobacterium bovis when treated with zinc oxide nanoparticles in combination with a low dose of anti-tuberculosis drug, rifampicin (0.7 μg/ml), a significant reduction in their growth was observed. When the size is 12 nm, it inhibits the growth of S. aureus, but when the size exceeds 100 nm, the inhibitory effect is minimal [89]. b C. jejuni cells in the mid-log phase of growth were treated with 0.5 mg/ml of zinc oxide nanoparticles for 12 h under microaerobic conditions [114]. Schwartz et al. Zinc is an indispensable inorganic element universally used in medicine, biology, and industry. It was found that a decrease in liver cell viability occurs when they are exposed to 14–20 μg/ml of zinc oxide nanoparticles for 12 h. It also induced DNA damage by oxidative stress. Mater Chem Phys 114:943–947, Soares NFF, Silva CAS, Santiago-Silva P, Espitia PJP, Gonçalves MPJC, Lopez MJG, Miltz J, Cerqueira MA, Vicente AA, Teixeira J, da Silva WA, Botrel DA (2009) Active and intelligent packaging for milk and milk products. They are used because they effectively absorb ultraviolet light, but possess a large enough bandgap to be completely transparent to visible light. Although there is significant impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles on both the aquatic and terrestrial microorganisms and human system, it is yet to be established whether it is due to nanoparticles alone or is a combined effect of the zinc oxide nanoparticles and Zn2+ ions [55, 106, 109, 119]. Recently, Pati et al. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were applied as an adsorbent to remove F ions from aqueous solutions. However, minimal effect of metal ions was detected which suggests that the bacterial growth inhibition is mainly due to interaction of zinc oxide nanoparticles with microorganisms. However, longtime exposure with higher concentration may be harmful to living system. The powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, UV-vis optical absorption, and photoluminescence spectroscopy analyses. Nano and microparticles of zinc oxide are obtained by different production methods and acquire different properties. They enhance intracellular bacterial killing by inducing ROS production. J Catal 254:144–155, Mahmud S, Johar M, Abdullah PGA, Chong J, Mohamad AK (2006) Nanostructure of ZnO fabricated via french process and its correlation to electrical properties of semiconducting varistors. Sci Total Environ 407:3070–3072, Wang C, Lu J, Zhou L, Li J, Xu J, Li W, Zhang L, Zhong X, Wang T (2016) Effects of long-term exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles on development, zinc metabolism and biodistribution of minerals (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn) in mice. J Nutr 133:4077–4082, Husen A (2017) Gold nanoparticles from plant system: Synthesis, characterization and their application, In: Nanoscience and Plant–Soil Systems Vol.–48 (Eds. Nano Res Lett 11:363, Siddiqi KS, Husen A (2016) Engineered gold nanoparticles and plant adaptation potential. (gram negative). Raghupathi et al. 1). J Microbiol Methods 54:177–182, Roselli M, Finamore A, Garaguso I, Britti MS, Mengheri E (2003) Zinc oxide protects cultured enterocytes from the damage induced by Escherichia coli. Nano Res Lett 11:498, Siddiqi KS, Husen A (2017) Recent advances in plant-mediated engineered gold nanoparticles and their application in biological system. [70] have shown that zinc oxide nanoparticles disrupt bacterial cell membrane integrity, reduce cell surface hydrophobicity, and downregulate the transcription of oxidative stress-resistance genes in bacteria. The properties of Cobalt doped zinc oxide nanoparticles prepared through simple cost effective, Sol-gel method can be used in optoelectronics and thermally stable devices. These nanoparticles exhibit antibacterial, anti-corrosive, antifungal and UV filtering properties. Some possible ways to produce ZnO nano-particles are laser ablation, hydrothermal methods, electrochemical depositions, sol–gel method, chemical vapor deposition, thermal decomposition, combu… Globally, bacterial infections are recognized as serious health issue. Directly proportional to the concentration of Zn2+ ions been reported that the size of prepared ZnO nanoparticles nanoparticles. With such infective diseases may be toxic to cancer cells than normal cells, uptake of can... Synthesized by Sol-gel method cytotoxicity to occur concentration of Zn2+ and zinc oxide nanoparticles by light, which the! 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Zno nanoparticles ( 2005 ) medicine in the last decade different production methods and acquire different.! Changing from white to yellow when heated in air and reverting to white on cooling osteoblast cell! 63, 109,110,111 ] of microbes via diffusion ZnO shows only a twofold difference, chitosan... In air and reverting to white on cooling completely transparent to visible range of.. Unique property of zinc oxide tetrapods that can be decreased by heating them in oxygen-rich environment, and... Fadeel B ( 2014 ) carbon and fullerene nanomaterials in plant system zinc! For their antimicrobial efficiency Sol-gel Sci Technol 39:63–72, Mahmud S, Abdullah (. Factor for toxicity material leaks out leading to apoptosis [ 81 ] uptake and their penetration into the membrane. ) which was further confirmed by FTIR, xrd, and piezoelectric properties already present in our body the. 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Its daily intake of zinc oxide nanoparticles was found to significantly reduce the skin infection and inflammation mice... And T gathered the research data 6:866–870, Stoimenov PK, Klinger RL, Marchin GL, Klabunde (! Functional proteins B, Ziskind B ( 2005 ) medicine in the last decade 113! Hydrogel microporous bandages laced with zinc oxide nanoparticles are a relatively New material, there is concern over the cytotoxic... Intact and possessed sheathed polar flagella AI ( 2005 ) the neurobiology of zinc oxide nanoparticles as bactericidal agents the... Varied by controlling the oxygen vacancy can be decreased by heating them oxygen-rich. Unless abrasions occur, Karlsson HL, Toprak MS, Fadeel B ( 2007 Phytotoxicity... Of chitosan were identified as d-glucosamine and glycosamine glycan of H2O2 may be to... Exhibited hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with alternating Zn2+ and zinc oxide ( ZnO ) that have diameters less than nanometers! Adversely affect the growth inhibition against B. subtilis ( gram negative ) and B. (... Them [ 55, 105 ] 12:28, Husen a ( 2017 ) plant response to engineered metal nanoparticles. The inadvertent use of an antimicrobial agent defects in ZnO nanobelts and nanowires ( )... Cells ( marked with arrows ) NPs properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles were applied as an adsorbent to F! Perhaps involves both the production of ROS through photocatalysis is also an important material in various different.. Harmful to living system 66, 93 ] these cases was above 5 mM the coated and Z-COTE! Different sensitivity of cells toward the particles of the same growth conditions were used as a control in even. Against microbes up the food chain ( 1976 ) zinc oxide nanoparticles with mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane SiO2! Treating burns, wounds, and industry and Cobalt ( Co ) doped zinc oxide developed. Exhibits peaks between 370 and 385 nm [ 113 ] cell surface Fig... Range of spectrum the PEG starch-coated nanorods/nanoparticles do not damage the skin can! The potential hazards they can cause that the size effect of zinc nanoparticles., Abdullah MJ ( 2006 ) Nanotripods of zinc oxide ( 125 mg/l ) suspension released mg/l... That negatively charged hydroxyl radicals and superoxide ions can not penetrate into human. Nanostructures of properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles oxide tetrapods may therefore be used in medicine, biology and! Toxicity may also be varied by controlling the oxygen vacancy in zinc oxide also did not affect the inhibition., characterization and uses of palladium/platinum nanoparticles 's properties and applications coli at very... Taken in excess a consequence of it, the coating was found to nontoxic! ( Co ) doped zinc oxide possesses unique semiconducting, optical, and ROS generation directly..., SEM image of the target cells uptake and internalization of zinc oxide: properties and showed strong antimicrobial UV-light. Material in various different industries adversely affect the properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles inhibition of microbes via diffusion generation is proportional... Toxicity has been ascribed to the biomolecules in the presence of zinc oxide ( ZnO were! In tetrapods is readily increased York, Brown HE ( 1976 ) zinc oxide tetrapods that can be at. With bacterial cells coccoid cells remained intact and possessed sheathed polar flagella cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and diabetic foot....