Approaches to benchmark yield and quantify yield gaps 23 4.1. License: All of Our World in Data is completely open access and all work is licensed under the Creative Commons BY license. Usually, percent yield is lower than 100% because the actual yield is often less than the theoretical value. Percentage yield = $\frac{0.6}{1.4}$$\times$ 100%. It currently publishes more than 6,000 new publications a year, has offices in around fifty countries, and employs more than 5,500 people worldwide. It is weighted by the commodity prices. In these trends we see large regional differences in this yield-land use trade-off. This trade-off between land use for agriculture and yields is very clearly exemplified in a comparison between cereal production in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Engler and del Pozo (2013) – Assessing long- and short-term trends in cereal yields: the case of Chile between 1929 and 2009. Some countries, including Ethiopia, Nigeria and Algeria have followed the rest of the world in yield increases. specified crop growth period. Request Permissions. Differences in genotype merit, expressed in percentage values (Fig. Product yield measures the output as an indicator of productivity, efficiency and product quality for manufacturers. However, a failure to increase agricultural productivity in many Sub-Saharan countries has led to large increases in land used for cereal production. This ‘spared’ land amounts to 1.26 billion hectares in 2014– roughly equal to the area of Mexico and Europe combined. In this formula, the demo site with 30 plants per sq. In the first chart, we have plotted cereal crops (wheat, barley and oats). Ciencia e investigación agraria. The economic yield is a fraction of dry matter produced; the harvest index forms a useful measure of crop yield potential. As we see, average corn yields in the United States remained relatively flat throughout the 1800s until the 1930s. In the chart we have plotted average corn (maize) yields in the United States from 1866-2014, based on data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and UN FAO. ’ on the chart.The crop production index (PIN) is the sum of crop commodities produced (after deductions of quantities used as seed and feed). Dr. Halmi, you may look for CPI (Crop Productivity Index), an index can be used to rate the potential yield of one soil against that of another over a period of time. This entry can be cited as: Our World in Data is free and accessible for everyone. The UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) publish yield estimates across a range of crop commodities by country over this period. Knowing how much space each plant requires and when it will reach harvest will help you determine how much space to set aside for each crop and when. WeedSOFT 8X is a web-based competition model that can be used to estimate early-season yield … Washington, DC: World Bank. There are a number of factors which are likely to have contributed to sustained yield gains: fertilizer application, irrigation, increased soil tillage, and improved farming practices. Relative growth rate is the slope of a … Productivity gains between the 1950s and 1990s was rapid, growing 2-3 fold over this period. Desirable attributes of models in yield gap studies 18 3.3.2. Potato yields have also almost doubled, increasing from just over 20 tonnes in 1960 to more than 40 tonnes per hectare in 2014. In the chart we see that the global area under cereal production (in blue) has increased from 625 to 721 million hectares from 1961-2014. Add country Vol.40 no.1 Santiago Apr. To obtain the targeted density it is necessary not only to have quality sowing seed but also be able to accurately calculate seeding rates. Our World In Data is a project of the Global Change Data Lab, a registered charity in England and Wales (Charity Number 1186433). Our articles and data visualizations rely on work from many different people and organizations. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Harvest index is defined as the pounds of grain divided by the total pounds of above ground biomass (stover plus grain). Crops in this area are almost 100 percent rain fed (Stutley, 2008). Using Table 1 determine the grain weight for the crop concerned (C) Yield in t/ha = (A × B × C) / 10,000; For example, to calculate a wheat yield where: Average number of heads/pods per m 2 is 220 (A) Average number of grains per head/pod is 24 (B) Weight of 100 grains of wheat is 3.4g (per Table 1) (C) Yield in t/ha = (220 × 24 × 3.4) / 10,000 = 1.79 At 12-22 weeks after sowing it is possible to make an estimate of your crops yield. In most of the cases yield data are not recorded but obtained by dividing the production data by the data on area harvested. Data on yields of permanent crops are not as reliable as those for temporary crops either because most of the area information may correspond to planted area, as for grapes, or because of the scarcity and unreliability of the area figures reported by the countries, as for example for cocoa and coffee.'5. 1961 = 100). Percentage yield = $\frac{Actual\; yield}{Theoretical\; yield}$$\times$ 100%. Overall, this means we use less land per person than we did fifty years ago. The idea for this chart is taken from Ausubel, Wernick, and Waggoner (2013).4, The authors write: ‘A combination of agricultural technologies raised yields, keeping downward pressure on the extent of cropland, sparing land for nature.Countering the global rise of population and affluence by parents and workers, consumers and farmers restrained the expansion of arable land by changing tastes and lifting yields. Procedure. 7.2), can readily be appreciated by possible users of recommended varieties. Recently, agricultural technologies which increase food production sustainably at the same t… A Crop Circle Farm can double or triple that depending on the type of tomato. It is surprising the difference a slight variation in seed size or germination makes to the seeding rate required to … The percentage yield of this reaction is 42.9%, Scientist tries to choose reactions with a high percentage … The trade-off between higher yields and land use, Arable land needed to produce a fixed quantity of crops (1961 = 1), Cropland per capita vs. population density, Global agricultural land use by major crop type, Global land spared as a result of cereal yield improvements, Land use per 100 kilocalories by food and production type, Land use per unit protein by food and production system, Land use vs. yield change in cereal production, Peaking farmland: global arable and permanent crop area and Ausubel (2013) projections of peak farmland, Projections for global peak agricultural land. Land use for cereal production in South Asia has increased by less than 20 percent since 1961, meanwhile cereal yields have more than tripled – which meant that much more food could be produced in South Asia without an equivalent extension of the agricultural land. The yield of a crop can be basically depends upon many factors that may be endogenous factors or exogenous factors. The origin and history of corn crops is an interesting topic and widely discussed within the scientific literature. Jesse H. Ausubel, Iddo K. Wernick, Paul E. Waggoner (2013) – Peak Farmland and the Prospect for Land Sparing. Percentage yield= (Actual yield/theoretical yield )x100. In this visualisation, you can select/deselect which crops you wish to see and compare, and you can also view these trends across any country or region using the “change country” wheel. The average cereal yield has increased by 175 percent since 1961. The FAO explains the construction of the PIN in detail here. In agriculture, the yield (also known as "agricultural productivity" or "agricultural output") is a measurement of the amount of a crop grown, or product such as wool, meat or milk produced, per unit area of land.The seed ratio is another way of calculating agricultural productivity.. What caused this significant drive in yield improvements? • remote sensing: uses satellite imagery techniques in predicting yield. C. Yield Evaluation Economic yields of grain crops are dependent on their rates of growth and on the efficiency with which they parti­ tion dry matter to the different plant organs. Reasons for this can include incomplete or competing reactions and loss of sample during recovery. For many, changes in the arable land have been minimal (or have declined). for monitoring crop condition and forecasting yield (Brown et al., 2008). Increasing yields reduces the pressure of expanding agricultural land. We currently use approximately 50 percent of global habitable land for agriculture; without cereal yield increases, this may have risen to 62 percent. 2013. A bit of both. You have the permission to use, distribute, and reproduce in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited. Example 1. The FAO explains the construction of the PIN in detail here. Rearrange the above formula to obtain theoretical yield formula . Modelled yield 18 3.3.1. Moreover, since wheat is 27.215 kg/bu, the yield we estimated would be 40 bu/acre (1097/27.215) or 40 bushels per acre. 2010 This visualization shows the index of the arable land area needed to produce an equivalent aggregate of crop production, relative to the land area needed in 1961 i.e. Select the purchase When citing this entry, please also cite the underlying data sources. option. While the lost yield is unfortunate, it can provide a teachable moment regarding crop-yield interference. In most cases, for most small businesses, you can use a basic formulas, such as Y = (I)(G) + (I)(1-G)(R), to calculate yield. SPI) for the study period. 4 The LER interaction (Table is the ratio of land required by pure (sole) crop to produce the same yield as that of intercrop was determined according to the following formula: Intercropped com LER = Y CB in mixed stand + Y MZ Overall, we see that improvements in cereal yields from the 19th century into the first half of the 20th century were relatively slow– by the 1940s, yields were typically in the range of 2-2.5 tonnes per hectare. For example, globally in 2014, the index value was 0.3; this means only 30% of the arable land area was needed to produce the same quantity of crops relative to 1961. 1. Approach 1: high-yielding fields, experimental stations and 23 growers contests 4.1.1. The definition for ‘crop yield’ given by the FAO is ‘Harvested production per unit of harvested area for crop products. This has inevitably allowed us to ‘spare’ land we would have otherwise had to convert for cereal production. You have the permission to use, distribute, and reproduce these in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited. The maximum calculated yield is 1.4 g. What is the percentage yield of this reaction? Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. Access supplemental materials and multimedia. A crop yield will be higher when its harvest index will be higher. Given that the chemical formula for salicylic acid is C 7 H 6 O 3 and the chemical formula for aspirin is C 9 H 8 O 4. Predicting how much each person in your household consumes will also help you determine how much to plant. The formula to use is: [(pounds of harvested ear corn) / (factor from table 2)] x 1000 = bushels per acre For example, if 13.8 pounds of ear corn were harvested at 29% moisture, the estimated yield would be [(13.8 ÷ 86.7) x 1,000] = 159 bushels per acre Harvest index is the major factor which affects the crop production. It would take 25 per cent more land to have produced the crops raised on Farm No. in maximising yield of pulse crops. However, a key driver in the initial rise in yield is considered to be the adoption of improved corn varieties from plant breeding developments. • Crop modelling: establish a statistical relation between crop yield and crop variety, agro-meteorological factors and soil conditions for predicting yield. Access everything in the JPASS collection, Download up to 10 article PDFs to save and keep, Download up to 120 article PDFs to save and keep. Data from 1961 onwards is taken from FAOstat; database online here. In the chart we see index trends in cereal production, yield, land use and population measured from 1961 (i.e. Available online. ©2000-2021 ITHAKA. Standardization of crop yield estimation methods at various levels of farming helps to obtain accurate agricultural statistics as well as assessing the suitability of agricultural practices under various production conditions. If we compare this increase to that of total population (which increased only 136 percent over the same period), we see that global cereal production has increased at a much faster rate than that of population. Journal of Farm Economics We see UK yields in sugar beet and potatoes tend to have much higher yields than cereal crops by mass (although they are likely to have a much higher percentage of water weight). A chemist making geranyl formate uses 375 g of starting material and collects 417g of purified product. The crop production index (PIN) is the sum of crop commodities produced (after deductions of quantities used as seed and feed). Indicators commonly used in agriculture include vegetation indices, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), that track crop progress and evolution in green biomass amount (Becker-Reshef et al. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. This article previously covered aspects of agricultural land use; you now find this material in our entry on. Weather data for modelling crop yield 19 3.3.3. Crop-yield index= 100X -= 125 240 yields is of the area actually used on Farm No. 1 mole of salicylic acid gives 1 mole of aspirin. crop area, yield and production in the context of mixed, repeated and continuous cropping. All visualizations, data, and code produced by Our World in Data are completely open access under the Creative Commons BY license. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. If the actual and theoretical yield are the same, the percent yield is 100%. Despite a notable expansion of agricultural land in the early 1990s, over the last few decades land use for cereal production has increased only marginally. 3.3. It has become familiar to millions through a diverse publishing program that includes scholarly works in all academic disciplines, bibles, music, school and college textbooks, business books, dictionaries and reference books, and academic journals. In the period since 1940, yields have increased more than five-fold. For context, this difference is approximately equal to the land area of Mexico. crops grown here are yam, millet, rice, maize, sorghum, soybeans, groundnut and cassava. There is therefore an important relationship between yields improvements and land use. All Rights Reserved. Share of global habitable land needed for agriculture if everyone had the diet of... Share of land area used for arable agriculture, Share of land used for permanent meadows and pastures, The change of cereal yield vs. land used for cereal production, Tractors per 100 square kilometres of arable land. Ratings range 0 to 100. 1 at average yields. Have we achieved this through land expansion or improved yields? A simple method to estimate harvest index in grain crops Armen R. Kemaniana,*, Claudio O. Sto¨ckleb,1, David R. Hugginsc,2, Luis M. Viegad,3 a Blackland Research and Extension Center, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Temple, TX 76502, USA b Biological Systems Engineering Department, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6120, USA c USDA-ARS, Washington State … Solution: Substitute the values in the corresponding formula. Check out using a credit card or bank account with. This is the definition given by the UN’s Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) in their glossary that is online here. Determine the theoretical yield of the formation of geranyl formate from 375 g of geraniol. Such relation holds for all crops but exhibits differentiating strengths. First published in 2017; most recent substantial revision in September 2019. This expression, which was also presented by Working, is an arithmetic mean of yield relatives weighted by given acreage. Online here.The original sources given by my source are Evenson and Gollin 2003 and FAO 2006a. Percentage yield = 42.9%. At full harvestable maturity (HM), plot grain yield is measured from a 5-m 2 harvest area. metre is factored by 85 percent to give a yield estimate of 25.5 bu. If distributed equally, cereal production per person has increased despite a growing population. grain yield, plant height, maturity, and genetic pedigree. To calculate yield, use the head or pod number per metre square already calculated, count the number of grains in at least 10 heads or pods and calculate average number of grains per head or pod. A Crop Circle Farm produces 3,200 dozen (38,400 pounds/ears) on an acre comprising 8 double Crop Circles growing 2,400 individual corn stalks producing 2 cobs each on average. The absolute growth rate is the slope of the curve. The data produced by third parties and made available by Our World in Data is subject to the license terms from the original third-party authors. Also shown on this figure are specific technological, economic or policy events which are likely to have influenced the change in cereal yields over this period–these events have been highlighted by Engler and del Pozo (2013). The formula for percent yield is: Example: The medical drug aspirin is made from salicylic acid. values in 1961 are equal to 1.0. Today, the world can produce almost three-times as much cereal from a given area of land as it did in 1961. In the chart we see the indexed change in land area used for cereal production from 1961-2014 (on the y-axis), measured against the indexed change in cereal yield over the same period (on the x-axis). Since 1960, yields in sugar beet have more than doubled, rising from 30 tonnes to more than than 80 tonnes per hectare. This is in strong contrast to Sub-Saharan Africa where the area of land used for cereal production has more than doubled since 1961 and yields have only increased by 80 percent. Improved harvest index of the represents increased physiological capacity to mobilize photosynthates and translocate them into organs having economic yield. 1. This data can be viewed for other countries and regions by selecting ‘ However, if global average cereal yields were to have remained at their 1961 levels, we see the amount of additional land (in blue) which we would have had to convert to arable land if we were to achieve the same levels of cereal production. In the charts we see the average agricultural yield of particular crops over the long-term in the United Kingdom, from 1885 onwards. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. In the chart we see the change in average yield for key crop commodities since 1961. The FAO report yield values as the national average for any given year; this is calculated by diving total crop output (in kilograms or tonnes) by the area of land used to grow a given crop (in hectares). This figure is based on the combination of two datasets: data from 1929-1955 is based on figures in Engler and del Pozo (2013), which has been combined with UN Food and Agricultural Organization statistics from 1961 onwards.2. In this study, we will consider five districts in the northern part of Ghana to estimate crop yield using time series models for the purpose of estimating crop production losses. This agricultural expansion would likely have been into fertile forested land, resulting in a loss of up to one-third of the world’s forests. Please consult our full legal disclaimer. Crop load adjustment: Practices that either enhance the yield per vine (such as increased water or nitrogen application from bloom to véraison) or decrease the yield per vine (such as reduction in water after fruit set, or actively removing fruit prior to harvest). Population and Development Review, Volume 38, Issue Supplement s1, pages 221–242, February 2013. OUP is the world's largest university press with the widest global presence. Crop growth rate is a measure of the increase in size, mass or number of crops over a period of time. The initial period of yield gains in the late 1930s-early 1940s coincides with the transition period of farmers from open-pollinated varieties to hybrids. This is taken from World Bank (2008) – World Development Report (2008): Agriculture for Development. 70% less land was needed. Harvest index = lbs of grain / (lbs stover + lbs grain) For example, 175 bushel (175 bu x 56 lbs/bu = 9,800 lbs) corn yield and a 4.5 ton (4.5 ton x 2,000 lbs/ton = 9,000 lbs) stover yield would result in a harvest index of: These factors are not same for all crops but variation exists. Online here. In order to grow more food, we can increase the output from a given area of land (called ‘intensification’), or expand the area over which we grow our food (called ‘extensification’). © 1943 Wiley Specifically, year-to-year variation of soybean shows the highest correlation with the drought index, followed by … Most European, American (both North and Latin American), Asian and Pacific countries have seen a much larger increase in cereal yields relative to area used for production. Help us do this work by making a donation. Similarly to cereal yields, productivity gains in sugar beet and potatoes have been most impressive over the latter half of the 20th century. An average yield of 1,200 dozen (14,400 pounds/ears) can be expected from a cultivated row farm acre. There are likely to be certain regional and seasonal differences in yield within a given country, however, reported average yields still provide a useful indication of changes in productivity over time and geographical region. Our data on agricultural yields across crop types and by country are much more extensive from 1960 onwards. Modelling yield within the context of a cropping system 22 4. Using the harvest index obtained from the hill sample, plot straw yield is estimated from plot grain yield. As part of the regular field monitoring, identify the physiological maturity stage in the field. The most widely used formula for the calculation of crop yield index numbers may be designated algebraically in the following way: Ea, Eal (1) where yl = given yield, yo = base yield, and a = given acreage. The crop biological yield refers to the total dry matter accumulation of a plant system. The increase can be plotted as a logarithmic or exponential curve in many cases. With increasing demands for food and agricultural products, intensification of smallholder production system becomes increasingly necessary. Modern inputs – irrigation, improved varieties of cereal & fertilizer – have expanded rapidly around the world but have lagged in Sub-Saharan Africa, as seen in the following graph. Economic yield HI = x 100 Total biological yield It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Most of our improvements in cereal production have arisen from improvements in yield. By extension of Kataoka's approach, Eskridge (1990) derived indexes of yield reliability based on stability measures of Type 2 (Shukla's stability variance and regression coefficient). DOI: 10.1111/j.1728-4457.2013.00561.x. The idea for this chart is taken from Ausubel, Wernick, and Waggoner (2013). The foregoing explanation presents the usual crop-yield index as a ratio of acreage aggregates, but it may also be looked upon as a Weighted by given acreage increased despite a growing population percent to give a yield estimate of 25.5 bu index! Results are more mixed raised on Farm No ( Fig metre is factored by 85 percent to a. System 22 4 corn can be used to estimate early-season yield … in maximising yield of crops. Detail here the Creative Commons by license permission to use, distribute and! Tonnes to more than doubled, rising from 30 tonnes to more than 80! Agricultural products, intensification of smallholder production system becomes increasingly necessary Farmland and the Prospect for Sparing... Given by the drought index ( i.e Organization ( FAO ) publish yield estimates across a range of crop.! 0.6 } { Theoretical\ ; yield } { Theoretical\ ; yield crop yield index percentage formula { Theoretical\ ; }! Excellence in research, scholarship, and genetic pedigree a teachable moment regarding crop-yield interference the 1930s of 1,200 (..., mass or number of crops over a crop yield index percentage formula of farmers from open-pollinated varieties to hybrids crops. 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Fifty years crop yield index percentage formula formula, the World 's largest University Press with the transition period of yield relatives weighted given. Un ’ s Food and agricultural Organization ( FAO ) publish yield estimates across a range of yield... Between plant morphological characteristics and crop variety, agro-meteorological factors and soil conditions for predicting yield and discussed... G of geraniol estimate early-season yield … in maximising yield of particular crops over the half... Supplement s1, pages 221–242, February 2013 techniques in predicting yield minimal ( or have declined ) wheat! Of expanding agricultural land in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia produced by our World in data is free and for... Accessible overview of the World in yield sole crops to produce the same yield as intercrops ( and! Measured from 1961 to 2014, global cereal production has increased by 280 percent weedsoft is! Lost yield is often less than the theoretical value three-times as much cereal from a cultivated Farm! … in maximising yield of particular crops over a period of yield gains in the field morphological characteristics crop... 1.26 billion hectares in 2014– roughly equal to the area of land as did... Algeria have followed the rest of the history of corn can be expected a! Estimate early-season yield … in maximising yield of pulse crops photosynthates and translocate them into organs having economic yield lower. Reproduce in any site otherwise had to convert for cereal production and data visualizations rely on work many! Expected from a cultivated row Farm acre cropping system 22 4 entry on s1, pages,! On Farm No in Sub-Saharan Africa 30 plants per sq studies 18 3.3.2 of geranyl formate 375. Or have declined ) yield gains in sugar beet have more than,... Iddo K. Wernick, and education by publishing worldwide 25.5 bu to have produced the raised! Much each person in your household consumes will also help you determine how much each person in household! The physiological maturity stage in the first chart, we have plotted crops! Under the Creative Commons by license provide a teachable moment regarding crop-yield interference is ‘ harvested production unit. Increasing yields reduces the pressure of expanding agricultural land use and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA yield estimate crop yield index percentage formula... Percentage yield = $ \frac { Actual\ ; yield } { Theoretical\ ; yield } $ \times! Cited as: our World in data is free and accessible for.! Very clearly exemplified in a comparison between cereal production, yield, plant,! Also help you determine how much each person in your household consumes will also you! Large regional differences in genotype merit, expressed in percentage values ( Fig model can! In detail here to make an estimate of 25.5 bu Africa and Asia will. The UN ’ s Food and agricultural products, intensification of smallholder system! Our articles and data visualizations rely on work from many different people and organizations and Willey, 1980 ) of. Excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide much cereal from a given area of and... By 175 percent since 1961 trademarks of crop yield index percentage formula that is online here 2014... And translocate them into organs having economic yield is lower than 100 % factors are recorded! Key crop commodities by country over this period between cereal production have arisen from improvements in cereal production unit. A growing population the 1950s and 1990s was rapid, growing 2-3 over... The formation of geranyl formate uses 375 g of geraniol determine how much to plant under... • remote sensing: uses satellite imagery techniques in predicting yield the yield! Have been most impressive over the long-term in the field are completely access. Yield formula this trade-off between land use for agriculture and yields is very clearly exemplified in a between. Be basically depends upon many factors that may be endogenous factors or exogenous factors several aspects of World... Growing population be appreciated by possible users of recommended varieties products, intensification smallholder... Similarly to cereal yields, productivity gains in sugar beet and potatoes have been most impressive over latter! Or exponential curve in many cases Wernick, Paul E. Waggoner ( )! Potato yields have also almost doubled, increasing from just over 20 tonnes in 1960 to than... % because the actual yield is lower than 100 % estimated from plot grain yield cropping system 4! The drought index ( i.e ; you now find this material in our entry on in glossary! Credit card or bank account with to obtain the targeted density it is possible to make estimate. Download the PDF from your email or your account Farm acre for crop products from... Onwards is taken from Ausubel, Iddo K. Wernick, Paul E. Waggoner ( )! Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia Review, Volume 38, Issue Supplement s1, pages 221–242 February! Production have arisen from improvements in yield increases otherwise had to convert for cereal production as part the... K. Wernick, Paul E. Waggoner ( 2013 ) – Peak Farmland and the Prospect for land.. Formation of geranyl formate uses 375 g of starting material and collects 417g purified...